Middle East and North Africa
A Tale of Two MENAs
Clemens Breisinger, Fatma Abdelaziz, and Nadim Khouri
As the most food import–dependent and the most important oil-exporting region in the world, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) clearly benefits from functioning global commodity markets. However, as in other parts of the world, people in the region do not always perceive globalization as a positive driver of development. Discontent with the inequities sometimes exacerbated by globalization, especially with respect to income and food security, probably contributed to the revolutions that started in 2010. In several countries, the uprisings turned into armed conflicts, making MENA the region with the greatest number of conflicts and refugees in the world.